Personality Type Test Results

Personality Type Test Results

Description of an ISTJ

At Their Best
ISTJs have a strong sense of responsibility and great loyalty to the organizations, families and relationships in their lives. They work with steady energy to fulfill commitments as stated and on time. They go to almost any trouble to complete something they see as necessary. ISTJs generally prefer to work alone and be accountable for the results; however, they are comfortable working in teams when it is necessary to do the job right, when roles are clearly defined and when people fulfill assigned responsibilities.

Characteristics of ISTJs
ISTJs have a profound respect for facts. They use their Sensing primarily internally where they have a storehouse of information which they draw on to understand the present. They are likely to be practical, systematic, sensible and realistic. ISTJs use Thinking in decision making, taking in objective, logical and tough-minded approach. Their focus is on the task or system as a whole rather than individuals. ISTJs tend to be logical and analytical, and detached and reasonable.

How Others May See Them
ISTJs are social able when comfortable in the roles they are playing; however, they generally do not share their wealth of rich Sensing observations and memories except with close friends. Others see their standards and judgments, their desire for structure and schedules, but may not see their individual, sometimes humorous private reactions.

It can be hard for ISTJs to see the sense in needs that differ widely from their own; but, once they are convinced that something matters to a person, they care about, that need becomes a fact. They go beyond generous lengths to meet the need, even while continuing to think it doesn’t make sense. Others usually see ISTJs as calm, reserved and serious, consistent and orderly, and valuing traditions.

Potential Areas for Growth
If they’ve not developed their Thinking, ISTJs may not have reliable ways for dealing with the world and instead may be preoccupied with their internal memories. If they’ve not developed their Sensing, ISTJs may rush into premature judgments and actions without considering new information

If ISTJs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may:

  • Be critical and judgmental of others
  • Find it hard to delegate – to trust anyone else to do the job right
  • Become rigid about times, schedules and procedures – “go by the book”

It is natural for ISTJs to give less attention to their non-preferred Intuitive and Feeling parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they may:

  • Not see the wider ramifications of current, expedient decisions,
  • Concentrate on logic so much they don’t consider impacts on people, and
  • Not respond appropriately to others’ need for connection and intimacy.

Leisure Activities for ISTJ
Serious and often solitary in their leisure, they apply their concentration and thoroughness to leisure activities. They prefer activities with purpose and concrete outcomes or measurably increased skill. Examples of activities include: Chess, Trivial Pursuit, computer games, aerobics or golf.

Organizational Preferences of an ISTJ

Contribution to the Organization

  • Get things done steadily and on schedule
  • Strong with detail and careful managing it
  • Can be counted on to honor commitments and follow through
  • Work well within organizational structure

Leadership Style

  • Use experience and knowledge of facts to make decisions
  • Build on reliable, stable, and consistent performance to take charge
  • Respect traditional, hierarchical approaches
  • Reward those who follow the rules while getting the job done

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains hard-working people focused on facts and results
  • Task oriented
  • Provides security
  • Rewards a steady pace
  • Structured

Potential Pitfalls

  • May overlook the long range implications in favor of day-to-day operations
  • May neglect interpersonal niceties
  • May become rigid in their ways and thought of as inflexible

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Examine the logical consequences
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • Pay attention to the wider ramifications of problems in addition to present realities
  • Consider the human element and communicate deserved appreciation
  • Try fresh alternatives to avoid ruts
  • Develop patience for those who ignore standard operating procedures

Back to Top



Description of an ISFJ

At Their Best
People with ISFJ preferences are dependable and considerate, committed to the people and groups with which they are associated, and faithful in carrying out responsibilities. They work with steady energy to complete jobs fully and on time. They will go to great trouble to do something they see as necessary, but dislike being required to do anything that doesn’t make sense to them.

ISFJs focus on what people need and want, and they establish orderly procedures to bring these about.

Characteristics of ISFJs
ISFJs have a realistic and practical respect for facts. They use their Sensing primarily internally, where they have a wealth of stored information. They remember clearly the details of things that have personal meaning for them, such as tones of voice and facial expressions. Thus, ISFJs are likely to be:

  • Practical and realistic
  • Concrete and specific

ISFJs use Feeling to make decisions based on personal values and concern for others. They value harmony and cooperation and work to create them. Thus, they are likely to be:

  • Cooperative and thoughtful of others
  • Kind and sensitive

Their opinions are firm because their decisions are based on careful application of their clear values and their wealth of stored data. ISFJs respect established procedures and authority, believing that these have persisted because they function well. Therefore they will support change only when new data show it will be of practical benefit to people.

How Others May See Them
ISFJs are unassuming and quiet in their interactions, often putting the needs of others especially family members ahead of their own. They are uncomfortable with confrontation and will go a long way to accommodate others, though their respect for traditions and people’s feelings can lead them to challenge actions they perceive as hurtful or insensitive. People see their values, their desire for structure and closure, their kindness. What others may not see is the wealth of rich, accurate internal Sensing impressions and memories. Others usually see ISFJs as:

  • Quiet, serious, and conscientious
  • Considerate, good caretakers
  • Honoring commitments, preserving traditions

Potential Areas for Growth
Sometimes life circumstances have not supported ISFJs in the development and expression of their Feeling and Sensing preferences.

  • If they have not developed their Feeling, ISFJs may not have reliable ways of dealing with the world and instead focus solely on their Sensing memories and impressions.
  • If they have not developed their Sensing, they may rush into value judgments or taking care of others without considering the realities.

If ISFJs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may:

  • Become rigid in supporting hierarchy, authority, and procedures
  • Feel unappreciated, resentful complain a lot
  • Be overly focused on immediate impacts of decisions

It is natural for ISFJs to give less attention to their non- preferred Intuitive and Thinking parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they may:

  • Not see the wider ramifications of current decisions or procedures
  • Find it difficult to assert their needs
  • Be uncomfortable applying impersonal criteria to decisions, even when needed

Under great stress, ISFJs can get caught up in “catastrophizing” imagining a host of negative possibilities. They may then express these without their usual consideration for the impact on people around them.

Leisure Activities of an ISFJ
Devoted to significant others in their leisure, they may be the cheering section for another’s sport; they are loyal to close friends or relatives in their use of their own leisure time. Low-key yet purposeful, preferring to plan their activities, they often focus on their physical surrounding or on creature comforts. Examples of ISFJ activities include: special dinners, picnics, nature walks, or watching TV/movies with someone they care for.

Organizational Preferences of an ISFJ

Contributions to the Organization

  • Take the practical needs of people into account
  • Use strong follow-through skills in carrying out organizational goals
  • Are painstaking and responsible with detail and routine
  • Expend efforts willingly to serve others

Leadership Style

  • May be reluctant to accept leadership at first, but will step in when asked
  • Expect themselves and others to comply with organizational needs, structures and hierarchy
  • Follow traditional procedures and rules conscientiously

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains conscientious people working on well structured tasks
  • Calm and quiet
  • Efficient
  • Clearly structured
  • Service oriented

Potential Pitfalls

  • May be overly pessimistic about the future
  • May not be seen as sufficiently tough-minded when presenting their views to others
  • May not be as flexible as the situation or others require

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Examine logical consequences
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • May need to work at seeing the future in positive, global terms
  • May need to develop more assertiveness and be more direct
  • Learn to publicize and spotlight their own accomplishments
  • Work at remaining open to other ways of doing things

Back to Top



Description of an INFJ

At Their Best
People with INFJ preferences have a gift for intuitively understanding complex meanings and human relationships. They have faith in their insights and find that they often empathically understand the feelings and motivations of people before the others themselves are aware of them. They combine this empathic understanding with the drive and organization to implement global plans for enhancing people’s lives.

INFJs have a visionary grasp of human relationships and possibilities, which, when articulated, can elevate and inspire others.

Characteristics of INFJs
INFJs seek meaning and connection in their lives and have little use for details unless they fit with their inner vision. They use their Intuition primarily internally, where they develop complex pictures and understandings. INFJs are likely to be:

  • Insightful, creative, and visionary
  • Conceptual, symbolic, and metaphorical
  • Idealistic, complex, and deep

INFJs apply personal values and empathize to understand others and make decisions. They are loyal to people and institutions that exemplify their values but have little interest in those that do not. INFJs prefer to lead persuasively by sharing their vision. They are likely to be:

  • Sensitive, compassionate, and empathic
  • Deeply committed to their values

INFJs want meaning and purpose in their work, their relationships, even their material possessions. They are invested in growth and development for themselves and significant others and are willing to consider unconventional paths to achieve these. They value the depth and complexity of their insights and creative gifts as well as those of others. They want to see these insights realized in the world.

How Others May See Them
INFJs readily show compassion and caring for others, but they share their internal intuitions only with those they trust. Because they keep this most valued, important part private, others may find them difficult to know. When they try to communicate their internal sense of “knowing,” they often express it metaphorically and with complexity. They especially value authenticity arid commitment in relationships.

Though INFJs are usually reserved, they don’t hesitate to assert themselves when their values are violated. Then they can be persistent and insistent. Others usually experience INFJs as:

  • Private, even mysterious
  • Intense and individualistic

Potential Areas for Growth
Sometimes life circumstances have not supported INFJs in the development and expression of their Feeling and Intuitive preferences.

  • If they have not developed their Feeling, INFJs may not have reliable ways of making decisions and accomplishing their goals. Then, their valuable insights and creativity stay locked inside.
  • If they have not developed their Intuition, they may not take in enough information or take in only what fits with their internal pictures. Then they will make ill-founded decisions based on distorted or limited information.

If INFJs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may

  • Not give others the information they used to arrive at a decision, and thus seem arbitrary
  • Base their judgments on little data, on a sense of “knowing” that has little basis in reality
  • Withdraw their energy and insight
  • Become resentful and critical

It is natural for INFJs to give less attention to their non- preferred Sensing and Thinking parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they may

  • Be unable to verbalize their inner insights in a way that others can understand
  • Fail to check their insights against reason and practicality, and end up following a vision that has little possibility of being realized
  • Become single minded in pursuit of a vision

Under great stress, INFJs may become obsessed with data they normally would consider irrelevant or over- indulge in Sensing activities such as watching TV reruns, overeating, or buying things that have little meaning for them.

Leisure Activities of an INFJ
Their originality is often expressed through reflective, solitary activities such as reading and music. The quiet warmth characteristic of this type may show in their social preference for small intimate gatherings. Other play activities that appeal to INFJs include artistic and cultural events, informational reading and collecting aesthetic objects.

Organizational Preferences of an INFJ

Contribution to the Organization

  • Provide future-oriented insights directed at how to serve human needs
  • Follow through on commitments
  • Organize complex interactions between people and tasks
  • Prefer jobs which require solitude and concentration

Leadership Style

  • Lead through their vision of what is best for others and the organization
  • Win cooperation rather than demanding it
  • Inspire others with their ideals
  • Utilize a quiet yet persistent course of action

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains people strongly focused on ideals that make a difference to human well being
  • Opportunities for creativity
  • Quiet
  • Allows time and space for reflection
  • Has a personal feel to it

Potential Pitfalls

  • May find their ideals overlooked and underestimated
  • May not be forthright with criticism
  • Reluctant to intrude upon others and thus keep too much to themselves

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Examine logical consequences
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • May need to develop political savvy and assertiveness skills to champion their ideas
  • Learn to give constructive feedback to others on a timely bases
  • Check their visions with others

Back to Top



Description of an INTJ

At Their Best
People with INTJ preferences have a clear vision of future possibilities coupled with the drive and organization to implement their ideas. They love complex challenges and readily synthesize complicated theoretical and abstract matters. Once they have created their general structure, they devise strategies to achieve their goals. Their global thinking leads them to develop visionary goals and a broad – brush plan for achieving these within large organizational structures.

NTJs value knowledge and expect competence of them- selves and others. They especially abhor confusion, mess, and inefficiency.

Characteristics of INTJs
INTJs see things from a global perspective and quickly relate new information to overall patterns. They trust their insightful connections regardless of established authority or popular opinions. Dull routine smothers their creativity. INTJs use their Intuition primarily internally, where they develop complex structures and pictures of the future. They are likely to be:

  • Insightful, creative synthesizers
  • Conceptual, long-range thinkers

INTJs use their thinking to make logical decisions. They assess everything with a critical eye, quickly identify problems to solve, and are tough and decisive when the situation calls for toughness. INTJs tend to be:

  • Clear and concise
  • Rational, detached, and objectively critical

INTJs are excellent long-range planners and often rise to positions of leadership in groups or organizations. They are independent, trust their own perceptions and judgments more than those of others, and apply their high standards of knowledge and competence most rigorously to themselves.

How Others May See Them
INTJs present a calm, decisive, and assured face to the world, though they may find it difficult to engage in social conversation. They usually don’t directly express their most valued and valuable part: their creative insights. Instead, they translate them into logical decisions, opinions, and plans, which they often express clearly. Because of this, others sometimes experience INTJs as intractable, much to the surprise of the INTJ, who is very willing to change an opinion when new evidence emerges. Others usually see INTJs as:

  • Private, reserved, hard to know, even aloof
  • Conceptual, original, and independent

Potential Areas for Growth
Sometimes life circumstances have not supported INTJs in the development and expression of their Thinking and Intuitive preferences.

  • If they have not developed their Thinking, INTJs may not have reliable ways to translate their valuable insights into achievable realities.
  • If they have not developed their Intuition, they may not take in enough information or take in only that information that fits their insights. Then they may make ill – founded decisions based on limited or idiosyncratic information.

If INTJs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may:

  • Become aloof and abrupt, not giving enough information about their internal processing.
  • Be critical of those who do not see their vision quickly
  • Become single-minded and unyielding in pursuing it

It is natural for INTJs to give less attention to their non- preferred Sensing and Feeling parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they may:

  • Overlook details or facts that do not fit into their Intuitive patterns
  • Engage in “intellectual games,” quibbling over abstract issues and terms that have little meaning or relevance to others
  • Not give enough weight to the impacts of their decisions on individuals
  • Fail to give as much praise or intimate connection as others desire

Under great stress, INTJs can overindulge in Sensing activities watching TV reruns, playing cards, overeating or become overly focused on specific details in their environment that they normally do not notice or usually see as unimportant (housecleaning, organizing cupboards).

Leisure Activities of an INTJ
With their original minds they enjoy games of strategy. They like to challenge their intuition through attending films and cultural events or reading. Their independent nature may lead them to individualistic sports such as swimming and backpacking. They tend to be critical of their own performance in leisure activities since mastery is important to them.

Organizational Preferences of an INTJ

Contribution to the Organization

  • Provide strong conceptual and design skills
  • Organize ideas into action plans
  • Work to remove all obstacles to goal attainment
  • Have strong visions of what the organization can be

Leadership Style

  • Drive themselves and others to attain the organization’s goals
  • Act strongly and forcefully in the field of ideas
  • Can be tough minded with others
  • Conceptualize, design, and build new methods

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains decisive, intellectually challenging people focused on implementing long range visions
  • Allows privacy of reflection
  • Efficient
  • Effective and productive people

Potential Pitfalls

  • May appear so unyielding that others are afraid to approach or challenge them
  • May criticize others in their striving for the ideal
  • May have difficulty letting go of impractical ideas
  • May ignore the impact of their ideas or style on others

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Examine logical consequences
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • May need to solicit feedback and suggestions
  • Need to learn how to appreciate others
  • Need to learn when to give up an impractical idea
  • Need to focus more on the impact of their ideas on people

Back to Top



Description of an ISTP

At Their Best
People with ISTP preferences carefully observe what is going on around them. Then, when the need arises, they move quickly to get to the core of a problem and solve it with the greatest efficiency and the least effort. They are interested in how and why things work but find abstract theories uninteresting unless they can quickly apply them. They often function as troubleshooters.

ISTPs resist regimentation and rules, thrive on variety and novelty, and enjoy the challenge of solving a new, concrete, extensive problem.

Characteristics of ISTPs
ISTPs use their Thinking primarily internally to see the essential structure underlying the facts. Their minds seem to work almost like computers, organizing data, reasoning impersonally and objectively. They make rational decisions based on a great deal of concrete data. ISTPs are likely to be:

  • Detached and objective critics
  • Analytical and logical problem solvers

ISTPs are realists, focusing on what is and what can be done with it, rather than on theoretical possibilities. They are often creative at dealing with the immediate problems and good at hands-on tasks. ISTPs are likely to be:

  • Practical and realistic
  • Factual and pragmatic

ISTPs are expedient and believe in economy of effort doing only what is needed with the least possible discussion and fuss. Their focus is on getting the desired results.

How Others May See Them
ISTPs are egalitarian and generally tolerant of a wide range of behavior until their ruling logical principles are attacked. At that point, they can surprise others by expressing their firm and clear judgments. ISTPs listen and seem to agree because they are not disagreeing; later, others may find the ISTP was analyzing and making internal judgments.

With their constant scanning for information and focus on results, ISTPs will change course readily if they see another, more efficient way. Because of this, others some- times have trouble “reading” them. They tend to be quiet and reserved, though they can be quite talkative in areas in which they have a lot of knowledge. Others usually see ISTPs as:

  • Adaptable, action-oriented risk takers
  • Confident, independent, and self-determined

Potential Areas for Growth
Sometimes life circumstances have not supported ISTPs in the development and expression of their Sensing and Thinking preferences.

  • If they have not developed their Sensing, ISTPs may have no reliable way of getting accurate data about the external world or of translating their thoughts into action.
  • If they have not developed their Thinking, they may get caught up in the realities around them and not take time to do the internal logical processing they need to make good decisions. Then their actions may be haphazard responses to immediate needs

If ISTPs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may:

  • Become cynical and negative critics
  • Withdraw their attention and energy
  • Postpone decisions

It is natural for ISTPs to give less attention to their non- preferred Feeling and Intuitive parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they may:

  • Overlook others’ emotional needs and values
  • Not give sufficient weight to the impacts of their decisions on others
  • Focus so intently on immediate results that they lose track of the long-term ramifications of their decisions and actions

Under great stress, ISTPs may erupt outwardly in inappropriate displays of emotion. The resulting explosive anger or hurt tearfulness is quite unnerving to others and embarrassing to the usually calm and controlled ISTP.

Leisure Activities of an ISTP
Characterized by their detached curiosity in leisure activity, whether spelunking or skydiving, they tend to choose activities that are solitary or enjoyed with a risk-taking friend. They often like manipulating mechanical things like planes, jet skis or rifles. Other examples of play activities include: archery, amateur stand-up comedy or stage magic, scuba diving or rappelling.

Organizational Preferences of an ISTP

Contribution to the Organization

  • Act as troubleshooters, rising to meet the needs of the occasion or problems of the moment
  • Function as a walking compendium of information
  • Get things done in spite of the rules, not because of them
  • Remain calm during crises and thus have settling effect on others

Leadership Style

  • Lead through actions by setting an example
  • Prefer a cooperative team approach with everyone treated as an equal
  • Respond quickly when trouble is at hand
  • Manage others loosely and prefer minimal supervision

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains action-oriented people focused on the immediate situation
  • Project oriented
  • Unconstrained by rules
  • Provides many new immediate problems to solve
  • Allows hands on experience

Potential Pitfalls

  • May keep important things to themselves and appear unconcerned to others
  • May appear indecisive and undirected
  • May be too expedient, conserve efforts, and take short cuts

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Examine logical consequences
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • May need to open up and share concerns and information with others
  • May need to develop perseverance
  • May need to plan and put in the effort necessary to achieve desired results
  • Need to develop habit of setting goals

Back to Top



Descriptions of an ISFP

At Their Best
ISFPs live in the present with a quiet sense of joyfulness; they want time to experience each moment. They prize the freedom to follow their own course, have their own space, and set their own time frame, and they give the same freedom and tolerance to others. They are faithful in fulfilling obligations to people and things that are important to them.

ISFPs take time to develop intimacy with others, but, once they do, those relationships are very important. They express their devotion to others spontaneously in many quiet ways.

Characteristics of ISFPs
ISFPs are guided by a strong core of inner values and want their outer life to demonstrate those values. They want their work to be more than just a job; they want to contribute to people’s well-being or happiness. They don’t enjoy routine but will work with energy and dedication when doing something they believe in. ISFPs are likely to be:

  • Trusting, kind, and considerate
  • Sensitive and gentle

ISFPs are acutely aware of the specifics and realities of the present the people and the world around them. They learn by doing more than by reading or hearing and get involved in day-by-day care taking activities. ISFPs are likely to be:

  • Observant
  • Realistic, practical, concrete, and factual

ISFPs are attuned to the feelings and needs of others and flexible in responding to them. They often have an affinity for nature and for beauty in all living things people, plants, and animals. They prize most those who take time to understand their values and goals and who support them in achieving those goals in their own way.

How Others May See Them
ISFPs are adaptable and flexible unless something that matters strongly to them is endangered; then they stop adapting. They care deeply about people but may show it through doing things for others more than through words.

ISFPs tend to be quiet and unassuming, and their warmth, enthusiasm, and playful humor may not be apparent to people who don’t know them well. They prefer to observe and support rather than organize situations; they have little wish to dominate.

ISFPs may be underestimated by others and may also underrate themselves. They often take for granted what they do well and make too much of the contrast between their inner standards and their actual behavior and accomplishments. Others usually see ISFPs as:

  • Quiet, reserved, and private
  • Spontaneous and tolerant – hard to know well

Potential Areas for Growth
Sometimes life circumstances have not supported ISFPs in the development and expression of their Sensing and Feeling preferences.

  • If they have not developed their Sensing, ISFPs may have no reliable way of getting accurate data about the external world or of actualizing their values. Their decisions will be based on little information and be overly personal.
  • If they have not developed their Feeling, they may get caught up in Sensing realities and not take time for the internal valuing process by which they make their best decisions. They may avoid decision-making, allowing others or circumstances to decide for them.

If ISFPs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may:

  • Withdraw from people and situations
  • Be excessively self-critical
  • Passively resist structures and rules
  • Feel unappreciated and undervalued

It is natural for ISFPs to give less attention to their non- preferred Thinking and Intuitive parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they may:

  • Reject or not take seriously logical systems
  • Feel ill-equipped to deal with complexity
  • Not always see the wider ramifications of their specific, immediate decisions

Under great stress, ISFPs can become uncharacteristically critical of themselves and others, verbalizing harsh and negative judgments.

Leisure activities of an ISFP
Quiet, friendly socializing with intimate friends or hanging out in a relaxed situation is important. They tend to focus on harmony in relationships and in their environment; thus art, nature, and informal hospitality are good choices for their play activity. They are very easygoing about leisure unless their sense of harmony is disrupted.

Organizational Preferences of an ISFP

Contribution to the Organization

  • Attend to the needs of people in the organization as they arise
  • Act to ensure others’ well being
  • Infuse a quiet joy into their work
  • Bring people and tasks together by virtue of their cooperative nature

Leadership Style

  • Prefer a cooperative team approach
  • Use personal loyalty as a means of motivating others
  • More apt to praise than to criticize

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains cooperative people quietly enjoying their work
  • Allows for private space
  • Has people who are compatible
  • Flexible

Potential Pitfalls

  • May be too trusting and gullible
  • May not critique others when needed, but may be overly self critical
  • May be too easily hurt and withdraw

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Examine logical consequences
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • May need to develop more skepticism and a method for analyzing information rather than just accepting it
  • May need to learn how to give negative feedback to others while appreciating their own accomplishments more
  • May need to develop future oriented perspective

Back to Top



Description of an INFP

At Their Best
People with INFP preferences have an inner core of values that guides their interactions and decisions. They want to be involved in work that contributes to both their own growth and inner development and those of others to have a purpose beyond their paycheck. They make a priority of clarifying their values and living in congruence with them.

INFPs recognize and honor the emotional and psychological needs of others, even when others may not have recognized or expressed their own needs.

Characteristics of INFPs
INFPs primarily use their Feeling preference internally where they make decisions based on their values of self-understanding, individuality, and growth. Living by moral commitments to what they believe in is crucial to INFPs. They are likely to be:

  • Sensitive, concerned, and caring
  • Idealistic and loyal to their ideas

INFPs enjoy reading, discussing, and reflecting on possibilities for positive change in the future. They are curious about ideas and quick to see connections and meanings. INFPs are likely to:

  • Be curious and creative
  • Have long-range vision

INFPs are usually fascinated by opportunities to explore the complexities of human personality their own and others’. They tend to work in bursts of energy and are capable of great concentration and output when fully engaged in a project. They are generally faithful in fulfilling obligations related to people, work, or ideas to which they are committed, but they can have difficulty performing routine work that has little meaning for them.

How Others May See Them
INFPs find structures and rules confining and prefer to work autonomously. They are adaptable and flexible until something violates their inner values. Then they stop adapting. The resulting expression of value judgments can emerge with an intensity that is surprising to others.

INFPs tend to be reserved and selective about sharing their most deeply held values and feelings. They value relationships based on depth, authenticity, true connection, and mutual growth. INFPs prize most those who take time to understand their values and goals. Others usually see INFPs as:

  • Sensitive, introspective, and complex
  • Original and individual
  • Sometimes difficult to understand

Potential Areas for Growth
Sometimes life circumstances have not supported INFPs in the development and expression of their Intuitive and Feeling preferences.

  • If they have not developed their Intuition, INFPs may not have reliable ways to take in information and may fail to notice the realities of situations. Then they may make decisions based solely on personal values and find it difficult to translate their values into action.
  • If they have not developed their Feeling, they may not take time for the inner valuing process by which they make their best decisions, instead going from one exciting possibility to another and achieving little.

If INFPs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may:

  • Have uncharacteristic difficulty expressing themselves verbally
  • Withdraw from people and situations
  • Not give enough information to others, especially about important values

It is natural for INFPs to give less attention to their non- preferred Thinking and Sensing parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they may:

  • Become easily discouraged about the contrast between their ideals and accomplishments
  • Reject logical reasoning even in situations that require it, asserting the supremacy of their internal viewpoint
  • Be impractical and have difficulty estimating the re- sources required to reach a desired goal

Under great stress, INFPs may begin seriously doubting their own competence and that of others, becoming overly critical and judgmental.

Leisure Activities of an INFP
INFPs tend to be private in their enthusiasm and often enjoy artistic activities such as creative writing, playing music, keeping a journal or taking photographs. Their love of language may lead them to collect poems, quotes, and books. They generally prefer intimate, informal social encounters and dislike large conventional gatherings.

Organizational Preferences of an INFP

Contribution to the Organization

  • Work to find a place for each person in the organization
  • Are persuasive about their ideals
  • Draw people together around a common purpose
  • Seek new ideas and possibilities for the group

Leadership Style

  • Take a facilities approach
  • Prefer unique leadership roles rather than conventional ones
  • Work independently toward their visions
  • Encourage others to act on their ideals

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains pleasant and committed people focused on values of importance to others
  • Cooperative atmosphere
  • Allows time for space and reflection
  • Unbureaucratic

Potential Pitfalls

  • May delay completion of tasks because of perfectionism
  • May try to please too many people at the same time
  • May not adjust their vision to the facts and logic of the situation

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Examine logical consequences
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • May need to learn to work with reality rather than seeking the perfect response
  • May need to develop more tough-mindedness and a willingness to say “no”
  • May need to factor in facts and logic along with their personal values
  • May need to develop and implement action plans

Back to Top



Description of an INTP

At Their Best
People with INTP preferences are independent problem solvers who excel at providing a detached, concise analysis of an idea or situation. They ask the difficult questions, challenging others and themselves to find new logical approaches.
INTPs’ best work may emerge when they are allowed to work independently on a problem whose solution requires an approach that runs counter to prevailing wisdom or knowledge. Though they typically work best alone, their incisive critiques and summaries can assist a group in getting to the core of complex problems.

Characteristics of INTPs
INTPs use their Thinking primarily internally to find or develop underlying principles and logical structures for understanding and explaining the world. They approach almost everything with skepticism, form their own opinions and standards, and apply these standards rigorously to themselves. They highly value intelligence and competence. INTPs are likely to be:

  • Logical, analytical, and objectively critical
  • Detached and contemplative

INTPs see possibilities and connections beyond the present and obvious. They are curious and seek knowledge for its own sake. They love to theorize and discuss abstractions. INTPs are usually:

  • Mentally quick, insightful, and ingenious
  • Intensely curious about ideas, theories, and what makes things work

INTPs quickly see inconsistencies and illogicality and enjoy taking apart and reworking ideas. They naturally build complex theoretical systems to explain the realities they see. They find it difficult to work on routine tasks, but bring great energy, intensity, and focus to researching or analyzing a complex problem that arouses their curiosity.

How Others May See Them
INTPs are usually quiet and reserved though they can be talkative in areas in which they are especially knowledgeable. Unless their work requires action, they are more interested in the challenge of finding solutions than in putting solutions to practical use. They prefer not to organize people or situations. INTPs are tolerant of a wide range of behavior, arguing and raising issues only when they believe it is reasonable to do so. This flexibility disappears, however, when their ruling principles are challenged; then they stop adapting. INTPs prize precision in communication and dislike redundancy or stating the obvious. They want to express the exact truth, but they may make it so complex that others have difficulty understanding. Others usually see INTPs as:

  • Quiet, contained, calm, and detached observers
  • Independent, valuing autonomy

Potential Areas for Growth
Sometimes life circumstances have not supported INTPs in the development and expression of their Intuitive and Thinking preferences.

  • If they have not developed their Intuition, INTPs may have no reliable way of taking in information and be immersed in their internal logical systems. Then they find it difficult to actualize or even communicate their ideas.
  • If they have not developed their Thinking, they may go from insight to insight, never analyzing them with a critical eye or integrating them into a whole.

If INTPs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may:

  • Become cynical and negative critics
  • Be sarcastic and destructively critical
  • Isolate themselves and put off action
  • Engage in verbal sparring and arguments

It is natural for INTPs to give less attention to their non- preferred Feeling and Sensing parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they may:

  • Be insensitive to the needs of others for information and emotional connection
  • Decide something they or others value is not important because it is “not logical”
  • Fail to consider the impact of their ideas or style of expression on others
  • Be impractical, forgetting details such as appropriate dress, unpaid bills, physical needs

Under great stress, INTPs may erupt outwardly in inappropriate displays of emotion. The resulting explosive anger or hurt tearfulness is quite unnerving to others and embarrassing to the usually calm and controlled INTP.

Leisure Activities of an INTP
Their tendency to be quiet and reserved is expressed in their preferences for solitary leisure; they may not enjoy parties or conventional kinds of socializing and sports. They often enjoy activities with an intellectual focus – reading, cultural events or chess. Although solitary leisure is essential to them because of their reflective nature, it may be neglected, because their intuition draws them into many work activities – which they then feel must be completed competently.

Organization Preferences of an INTP

Contribution to the Organization

  • Design logical and complex systems
  • Demonstrate expertise in tackling complex problems
  • Apply logic, analysis and critical thinking on issues
  • Cut directly to the core issue

Leadership Style

  • Lead through conceptual analysis of problems and goals
  • Apply logical systems thinking
  • Seek to interact at an intellectual rather than an emotional level
  • Relate to others based on expertise rather than position

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains independent thinkers focused on solving complex problems
  • Rewards self-determination
  • Unstructured
  • Fosters independence

Potential Pitfalls

  • May be too abstract and therefore unrealistic about necessary follow-through
  • May focus overly on minor inconsistencies at the expense of teamwork and harmony
  • May turn their critical analytical thinking on people and act impersonally

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Examine logical consequences
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • May need to focus on practical details and develop follow through
  • May need to make efforts to state things more simply
  • May need to show appreciation of others’ input
  • May need to get to know more about others’ personal and professional sides

Back to Top



Description of an ESTP

At Their Best
People with ESTP preferences are energetic, active problem solvers, responding creatively to challenging situations in their environment. They seldom let rules or standard procedures interfere, finding new ways to use existing systems. They develop easy methods to do difficult things and make their work fun. They are flexible, adaptable, inventive, and resourceful, can pull conflicting factions together, and are good team members.

They are popular companions for activities (parties, sports, or work) because of their zest for life and their enjoyment of the moment.

Characteristics of ESTPs
ESTPs are interested in everything going on around them activities, food, clothes, people, the outdoors, and everything that offers new experiences. Because they learn more from doing than from studying or reading, they tend to plunge into things, learning as they go, trusting their ability to respond resourcefully. ESTPs are likely to be:

  • Observant
  • Practical and realistic
  • Active, involved in immediate experience

ESTPs make decisions by logical analysis and reasoning and can be tough when the situation calls for toughness. They usually are:

  • Analytical, rational problem solvers
  • Straightforward and assertive

ESTPs are expert at seeing the needs of the moment and reacting quickly to meet them. For the most part, they prefer to deal flexibly with what is, rather than make judgments. They good-naturedly take things as they are and seek satisfying solutions, rather than imposing a “should” or “must” of their own.

How Others May See Them
ESTPs are strong in the art of living. They love life and immerse themselves in it; others respond to their enthusiasm and good humor. ESTPs are people of action. They usually dislike and avoid theory and written directions. Traditional schools can be difficult for people with these preferences, though ESTPs do well when they see the relevance and are allowed to experiment. Others usually see ESTPs as:

  • Gregarious, fun-loving, and spontaneous
  • Adventurous risk takers
  • Pragmatic troubleshooter

Potential Areas for Growth
Sometimes life circumstances have not supported ESTPs in the development and expression of their Thinking and Sensing preferences.

  • If they have not developed their Thinking, ESTPs will not have a useful way of selecting amongst the barrage of incoming sensory data. They may then have difficulty setting priorities or may make ill-founded decisions.
  • If they have not developed their Sensing, they may focus on the Sensing data that are immediately available. Their decisions may then be limited to gratification of their sensual desires, particularly those involving physical challenge and risk.

If ESTPs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may:

  • Have trouble accepting structure and meeting deadlines
  • Focus entirely on excitement and activity, getting caught up in external activities
  • Put enjoying life ahead of important obligations

It is natural for ESTPs to give less attention to their non- preferred Intuitive and Feeling parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they:

  • May not see the wider ramifications of their actions and decisions
  • May forget dates and events that have special meaning to others
  • May be unaware of the impact of their actions on others
  • May be impatient with discussion or exploration of relationships

Under great stress, ESTPs may have negative fantasies. They may imagine that others do not really care about them, then marshal and distort their Sensing data to provide themselves with “evidence” of this neglect.

Leisure Activities of an ESTP
They tend to be highly active and to need stimulation, perhaps through mechanical things or competitive team sports. Activity and competition are often more important than personal relationships in their leisure. Activities include: race car driving, flying, softball, volleyball or boxing.

Organizational Preferences of an ESTP

Contribution to the Organization

  • Negotiate and seek compromise to keep things moving
  • Make things happen, keep things lively
  • Take a realistic approach
  • Embrace risk

Leadership Style

  • Take charge readily in crisis
  • Persuade others to their point of view
  • Have a direct and assertive style
  • Seek action and immediate results

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains lively, results-oriented people who value first-hand experience
  • Allows time for fun
  • Provides for flexibility in doing the job
  • Responds to the needs of the moment
  • Technically oriented

Potential Pitfalls

  • May appear blunt and insensitive to others when acting quickly
  • May rely too much on improvisation and miss the wider implications of their actions
  • May get hooked on materialism

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Examine logical consequences
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • May need to curb their assertiveness and factor in the feelings of others
  • May need to look beyond the quick fix, plan ahead and consider the wider ramifications
  • May need to develop more stick-to-it-iveness

Back to Top



Description of an ESFP

At Their Best
People with ESFP preferences are exuberant lovers of life. They live in the moment and find enjoyment in people, food, clothes, animals, the natural world, and activities. They seldom let rules interfere with their lives, focusing on meeting human needs in creative ways.

ESFPs are excellent team players, oriented to getting the task done with a maximum amount of fun and a minimum amount of fuss.

Characteristics of ESFPs
ESFPs are interested in people and new experiences. Because they learn more from doing than from studying or reading, they tend to plunge into things, learning as they go. They appreciate their possessions and take pleasure in them. ESFPs are likely to be:

  • Observant
  • Practical, realistic, and specific
  • Active, involved in immediate experiences

ESFPs make decisions by using their personal values. They use their Feeling judgment internally to make decisions by identifying and empathizing with others. They are good at interpersonal interactions and often play the role of peacemaker. Thus, ESFPs are likely to be:

  • Generous, optimistic, and persuasive
  • Warm, sympathetic, and tactful

ESFPs are keen observers of human behavior. They seem to sense what is happening with other people and respond quickly to their practical needs. They are especially good at mobilizing people to deal with crises.

How Others May See Them
ESFPs get a lot of fun out of life and are fun to be with; their exuberance and enthusiasm draw others to them. They are flexible, adaptable, congenial, and easygoing. They seldom plan ahead, trusting their ability to respond in the moment and deal effectively with whatever presents itself. They hate structure and routine and will generally find ways to get around them.

ESFPs tend to learn by doing, by interacting with their environment. They usually dislike theory and written explanations. Traditional schools can be difficult for ESFPs, though they do well when they see the relevance and are allowed to interact with people or the topics being studied. Others usually see ESFPs as:

  • Resourceful and supportive
  • Gregarious, fun-loving, playful, spontaneous

Potential Areas for Growth
Sometimes life circumstances have not supported ESFPs in the development and expression of their Feeling and sensing preferences.

  • If they have not developed their Feeling, ESFPs may get caught up in the interactions of the moment, with no mechanism for weighing, evaluating, or anchoring themselves. 
  • If they have not developed their Sensing they may focus on the sensory data available in the moment. Their decisions may then be limited to gratification of their sensual desires, particularly those involving interactions with other people.

If ESFPs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may:

  • Become distracted and overly impulsive
  • Have trouble accepting and meeting deadlines
  • Over-personalize others’ actions and decisions

It is natural for ESFPs to give less attention to their non-preferred Intuitive and Thinking parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they may:

  • Fail to look at long-term consequences, acting on immediate needs of themselves and others,
  • Avoid complex or ambiguous situations and people
  • Put enjoyment ahead of obligations

Under great stress, ESFPs may feel overwhelmed internally by negative possibilities. They then put energy into developing simplistic global explanations for their negative pictures.

Leisure Activities of an ESFP
Outgoing, easygoing, and highly social, they like big parties and gatherings; they’re often high-spirited, warm, and friendly in groups. They also tend to interact with others easily through team sports and are quick to join a group that looks like fun. They may enjoy home projects such as building a deck for parties or putting up preserves for friends.

Organizational Preferences of an ESFP

Contribution to the Organization

  • Bring enthusiasm and cooperation
  • Present a positive image of the organization to others
  • Offer action and excitement
  • Accept and deal with people as they are

Leadership Style

  • Lead through the promotion of good will and teamwork
  • Manage crisis well
  • Ease tense situations by pulling conflicting factions together
  • Facilitate effective interactions among people

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains energetic and easygoing people focused on present realities
  • Lively
  • Action oriented
  • Includes people who are adaptable
  • Attractive

Potential Pitfalls

  • May over-emphasize subjective data
  • May not reflect before jumping n
  • May not always finish what they start

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Examine logical consequences
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • May need to include logical implications in their decision making
  • May need to plan ahead when managing projects
  • May need to balance task effort with socializing

Back to Top



Description of an ENFP

At Their Best
For people with ENFP preferences, life is a creative adventure full of exciting possibilities. ENFPs are keenly perceptive about people and insightful about the present and future. They experience a wide range of feelings and intense emotions. They need affirmation from others and readily give appreciation and support.

ENFPs are good at understanding how people and groups work and are persuasive and compelling in pursuing what is important to them. They are adaptable, blooming where they are planted. Their energy and enthusiasm encourage others to bloom as well.

Characteristics of ENFPs
ENFPs are innovators, initiating projects and directing great energy into getting them under way. Using Intuition primarily externally, they are stimulated by new people, ideas, and experiences. They find meaning and significance readily and see connections that others don’t. They are likely to be:

  • Curious, creative, and imaginative
  • Energetic, enthusiastic, and spontaneous

ENFPs value harmony and goodwill. They like to please others and will adapt to others’ needs and wishes when possible. ENFPs primarily use Feeling internally, making decisions by applying personal values through identification and empathy with others. ENFPs are likely to be:

  • Warm, friendly, and caring
  • Cooperative and supportive

ENFPs have exceptional insight into possibilities in others and the energy and motivation to help actualize them. They feel confident moving ahead based on their insights, and their enthusiasm tends to bring others along with them.

How Others May See Them
ENFPs are usually lively, gregarious, and sociable, with a large circle of friends. They are interested in almost every- thing and bring a zest to life that draws others to them. At the same time, they value depth and authenticity in their close relationships and direct great energy to creating and supporting open and honest communication.

ENFPs hate routine, schedules, and structure and usually manage to avoid them. They are normally verbally fluent, even in extemporaneous situations; however, when their deepest values need expression, they may suddenly be awkward and express their judgments with uncharacteristic intensity. Others usually see ENFPs as:

  • Personable, perceptive, and persuasive
  • Enthusiastic, spontaneous, and versatile
  • Giving and seeking affirmation

Potential Areas for Growth
Sometimes life circumstances have not supported ENFPs in the development and expression of their Feeling and Intuitive preferences.

  • If they have not developed their Feeling, they may go from enthusiasm to enthusiasm, never committing the energy necessary to actualize their insights, or they may make overly personal decisions.
  • If they have not developed their Intuition, they may fail to take in enough information, lack trust in their own insights, be uncertain, and accept others’ perceptions too quickly.

If ENFPs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may:

  • Become scattered, have trouble focusing, be easily distracted
  • Fail to follow through on decisions
  • Become rebellious, excessively nonconforming
  • Ignore deadlines and procedures

It is natural for ENFPs to give less attention to their non- preferred Sensing and Thinking parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they may:

  • Not take care of the details and routine required for implementing their inspirations
  • Overextend themselves have trouble saying no to interesting possibilities and people
  • Fail to apply reason and logic to assess their inspirations and decisions

Under great stress, ENFPs may become overwhelmed by detail and lose their normal perspective and sense of options. Then they tend to focus on an unimportant or distorted detail, letting it become the central fact of their universe.

Leisure Activities of an ENFP
ENFPs tend to be warmly enthusiastic about many kinds of leisure, including imaginative play possibilities beyond the conventional or obvious. They are often active and people focused in sports and gatherings. They may appreciate art and be amateur performers. They often need lots of stimulation and try to bring elements of play into their work.

Organizational Preferences of an ENFP

Contribution to the Organization

  • Initiate change
  • Focus on possibilities, especially for people
  • Energize others through their contagious enthusiasm
  • Appreciate others

Leadership Style

  • Lead with energy and enthusiasm
  • Like to be in charge of the start-up phase
  • Communicate and often become spokespersons for values relating to people
  • Pay attention to what motivates others

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains imaginative people focused on human possibilities
  • Colorful
  • Offers variety and challenge
  • Idea oriented

Potential Pitfalls

  • May move onto new ideas or projects without completing those already started
  • May overlook relevant details
  • May procrastinate

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Examine logical consequences
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • May need to focus on important details
  • May need to learn and apply time management skills
  • May need to set priorities and develop follow through

Back to Top



Description of an ENTP

At Their Best
People with ENTP preferences constantly scan the environment for opportunities and possibilities. They see patterns and connections not obvious to others and-at times seem able to see into the future. They are adept at generating conceptual possibilities and then analyzing them strategically.

ENTPs are good at understanding how systems work and are enterprising and resourceful in maneuvering within them to achieve their ends.

Characteristics of ENTPs
ENTPs are enthusiastic innovators. Their world is full of possibilities, interesting concepts, and exciting challenges. They are stimulated by difficulties, quickly devising creative responses and plunging into activity, trusting their ability to improvise. They use their Intuition primarily externally and enjoy exercising ingenuity in the world. ENTPs are likely to be:

  • Creative, imaginative, and clever
  • Theoretical, conceptual, and curious

ENTPs use their Thinking primarily internally to analyze situations and their own ideas and to plan. They admire competence, intelligence, precision, and efficiency. ENTPs are usually:

  • Analytical, logical, rational, and objective
  • Assertive and questioning

ENTPs are enterprising, resourceful, active, and energetic. They respond to challenging problems by creating complex and global solutions. They are usually adept at “reading” other people, seeing how to motivate them, and assuming leadership. They can do almost anything that captures their interest.

How Others May See Them
ENTPs are spontaneous and adaptable. They find schedules and standard operating procedures confining and work around them whenever possible. They are remarkably insightful about the attitudes of others, and their enthusiasm and energy can mobilize people to support their vision. Their conversational style is customarily challenging and stimulating because they love to debate ideas. They are fluent conversationalists, mentally quick, and enjoy verbal sparring. When they express their underlying Thinking principles, however, they may speak with an intensity and abruptness that seem to challenge others. Others usually see ENTPs as:

  • Independent, autonomous, and creative
  • Lively, enthusiastic, and energetic
  • Assertive and outspoken

Potential Areas for Growth
Sometimes life circumstances have not supported ENTPs in the development and expression of their Thinking and Intuitive preferences.

  • If they have not developed their Thinking, they may not have reliable ways to evaluate their insights and make plans to carry them through. Then they go from enthusiasm to enthusiasm with little actually accomplished
  • If they have not developed their Intuition, they may not take in enough relevant information, resulting in “insights” unrelated to current reality.

If ENTPs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may:

  • Become brash, rude, and abrasive
  • Criticize others, especially those who seem to them to be inefficient or incompetent
  • Become rebellious and combative
  • Become scattered-unable to focus

It is natural for ENTPs to give less attention to their non-preferred Sensing and Feeling parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they may:

  • Not take care of the details and routine required to implement their insights
  • Not give enough weight to the impact of their ideas and plans on others
  • Be excessively and inappropriately “challenging and stimulating”

Under great stress, ENTPs can be overwhelmed by detail, losing their ability to generate possibilities. Then they focus on a minor or distorted detail, thinking that it is supremely important.

Leisure Activities of an ENTP
Often stimulating company, ENTPs like to be around exciting people in unconventional surroundings. Their desire for novelty attracts them to unique events. Their love of adventure leads them to enjoy travel and risk taking activities. They are easy going about leisure, often preferring not to plan it.

Organizational Preferences of ENTP

Contribution to the Organization

  • View limitations as challenges to be overcome
  • Provide new ways to do things
  • Enjoy complex challenges
  • Take initiative and spur others on

Leadership Style

  • Plan theoretical systems to address organizational needs
  • Apply logical systems thinking
  • Act as catalyst between people and systems
  • Use compelling reasons for what they want to do

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains independent people working on models to solve complex problems
  • Flexible and challenging
  • Encourages autonomy
  • Rewards risk-taking

Potential Pitfalls

  • May become lost in the model, forgetting about current realities
  • May not adapt well to standard procedures
  • May be competitive and unappreciative of the input of others
  • May over-extend themselves

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Examine logical consequences
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • May need to pay attention to the here and now
  • May need to acknowledge and validate input from others
  • May need to set realistic priorities and timelines
  • May need to learn how to work within the system of their projects

Back to Top



Description of an ESTJ

At Their Best
People with ESTJ preferences like to organize projects, operations, procedures, and people and then act to get things done. They live by a set of clear standards and beliefs, make a systematic effort to follow these, and expect the same of others. They value competence, efficiency, and results and display them in their work and play.

ESTJs enjoy interacting and working with others, as long as the others are responsible about meeting deadlines and completing assigned tasks. They work best in situations where clear, known problems can be solved with proven techniques.

Characteristics of ESTJs
ESTJs take an objective approach to problem solving and are tough when the situation requires toughness. They use their Thinking primarily externally to organize their lives and work, and they have little patience with confusion, inefficiency, or halfway measures. ESTJs are likely to be:

  • Logical, analytical, and objectively critical
  • Decisive, clear, and assertive

ESTJs focus on the present what is real and actual. They apply and adapt relevant past experience to deal with problems, and they prefer jobs where results are immediate, visible, and tangible. ESTJs are likely to be:

  • Practical, realistic, and matter-of-fact
  • Systematic and pragmatic

ESTJs are usually excellent administrators because they understand systems and logistics. They can project the steps needed to accomplish a task, foresee potential problems, assign responsibilities, and marshal resources. They cover all the bases, leave no loose ends, and get things done on time. When they see that things are not working, they will plan and act to correct the situation. Otherwise, they prefer proven procedures and systems. Their orientation is to tasks, action, and the bottom line.

How Others May See Them:
Because they naturally devise systems, procedures, and schedules, others rely on ESTJs to take charge and get things done. Others may also find them overpowering at times because ESTJs are so certain about how things should be. Because they are clear and straightforward in their communication, people seldom have to wonder where they stand.
ESTJs can be quite gregarious and generally enjoy interacting with people, especially around tasks, games, traditions, and family activities. They take relationship roles seriously and fulfill them responsibly. Others usually see ESTJs as

  • Conscientious and dependable
  • Decisive, outspoken, and self-confident
Potential Areas for Growth
Sometimes life circumstances have not supported ESTJs in the development and expression of their Sensing and Thinking preferences.

  • If they have not developed their Sensing, ESTJs may decide too quickly before taking in enough information. Then their decisions will reflect their previously formed judgments or biases.
  • If they have not developed their Thinking, they may not have a reliable way of evaluating information and thus end up making inconsistent or overly harsh decisions.

If ESTJs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may:

  • Become rigid and dogmatic
  • Be intrusive, “know-it-all” experts, overpowering others and refusing to listen
  • Get picky about details and be impatient with those who do not follow procedures exactly

It is natural for ESTJs to give less attention to their non- preferred Feeling and Intuitive parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they may:

  • Apply logic even when emotions and impacts on people need primary consideration
  • Fail to respond to others’ needs for intimate connection and processing of feelings
  • Not always see the wider ramifications of a seemingly simple, direct action

Under great stress, ESTJs may feel alone and unappreciated and be unable to communicate their feeling of distress and despair.

Leisure Activities of an ESTJ
Since these individuals tend to be practical realists, they often choose activities with productive outcomes, such as tinkering at home or building a greenhouse. They may enjoy taking the initiative to organize and run things, so community organizations or volunteer activities are good leisure possibilities for them. Their interest in nature tends toward identifying and categorizing natural phenomena.

Organizational Preferences of an ESTJ

Contribution to the Organization

  • See flaws in advance
  • Critique programs in a logical way
  • Monitor to see if the job is done
  • Organize the process, products and people

Leadership Style

  • Seek leadership directly and take charge quickly
  • Apply and adapt past experiences to solve problems
  • Act as traditional leaders who respect the hierarchy
  • Quick to decide

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains hardworking people focused on getting the job done correctly
  • Task oriented and structured
  • Provides stability and predictability
  • Focused on efficiency

Potential Pitfalls

  • May decide too quickly
  • May not see the need for change
  • May overlook the niceties in working to get the job done
  • May be overtaken by their feelings and values if they ignore them for too long

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Examine logical consequences
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • May need to consider all sides before deciding
  • May need to prod themselves to look at the benefits of change
  • May need to make a special effort to show appreciation of others
  • May need to take time to reflect and identify their feelings and values

Back to Top



Description of an ESFJ

At Their Best
People with ESFJ preferences like to organize people and situations and then work with others to complete tasks accurately and on time. They are conscientious and loyal, following through even in small matters, and they want others to be the same. They value security and stability.

Sociable and outgoing, ESFJs enjoy celebrations and traditions and bring a very personal caring to the workplace and home. They want to be appreciated for themselves and for what they give to others.

Characteristics of ESFJs
ESFJs use their Feeling primarily externally and radiate warmth and energy. They are encouraged by approval and hurt by indifference or unkindness. Conflict-filled or tense situations make them uncomfortable, and they work to ensure these don’t occur. ESFJs are likely to be:

  • Warm, sympathetic, and helpful
  • Personable, cooperative, and tactful

ESFJs focus on the present and base decisions on experience and facts. Though they enjoy variety, they adapt well to routine and don’t like work that demands mastery of abstract ideas or impersonal analysis. They enjoy their possessions and take good care of them. ESFJs are likely to be:

  • Practical, realistic, and down-to-earth
  • Decisive, thorough, and consistent

ESFJs are sensitive to the needs of each individual in their environment and good at providing practical caring. Much of their pleasure and satisfaction comes from the comfort and pleasure of others.

How Others May See Them
ESFJs are energized by interaction with others and genuinely interested in others’ lives and concerns. They feel most comfortable in structured situations and enjoy creating order, structure, and schedules. They prefer to do things the traditional and accepted way.

For the sake of harmony, ESFJs will agree with others when they can. However, they also have strong values, which they express clearly and confidently when they think it is appropriate.

ESFJs value family and social ties. They enjoy belonging and are good at celebrations and traditions. Others usually see ESFJs as:

  • Sociable, outgoing, enthusiastic, and energetic
  • Organized and orderly
  • Committed to preserving traditions 

Potential Areas for Growth
Sometimes life circumstances have not supported ESFJs in the development and expression of their Sensing and Feeling preferences.

  • If they have not developed their Sensing, ESFJs may not take in much information before making decisions and jump to conclusions before fully understanding a situation. They may then impose those decisions on everyone around them.
  • If they have not developed their Feeling, they may be tentative and uncertain, accepting the judgments of others too quickly.

If ESFJs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may:

  • Doubt themselves and focus their attention entirely on satisfying the needs of others
  • Worry and feel guilty
  • Become controlling in their push for harmony “we will all get along”
  • Become overly sensitive, imagining slights where none was intended

It is natural for ESFJs to give less attention to their non-preferred Thinking and Intuitive parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they may:

  • Find it difficult to acknowledge and deal with the truth of problems with people or things they care about
  • Support those in charge or the standard procedures too uncritically
  • Fail to see wider possibilities or alternative ways of doing things

Under great stress, ESFJs may find themselves uncharacteristically critical of others and of themselves. Their negative thoughts and opinions then trouble them greatly.

Leisure Activities of an ESFJ
Warm-hearted and communicative, they tend to be popular and active in committees, church and volunteer activities and other group efforts. They may enjoy celebrating holidays, family traditions, and gathering of friends, perhaps by planning and executing special occasions; they’re often considered thoughtful of others. Other activities include: choral music, casual volleyball, cooking classes or parties and church activities.

Organizational Preferences of an ESFJ

Contribution to the Organization

  • Work well with others, especially on teams
  • Pay close attention to people’s needs and wants
  • Complete tasks in a timely and accurate way
  • Respect rules and authority

Leadership Style

  • Lead through personal attention to others
  • Gain good will through food relationships
  • Keep people well informed
  • Uphold organizational traditions

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains conscientious, cooperative people oriented towards helping others
  • Goal oriented people and systems
  • Friendly
  • Operate on facts
  • Includes people who are appreciative

Potential Pitfalls

  • May avoid conflict and sweep problems under the rug
  • May not value their own priorities enough because of a desire to please others
  • May assume they know what is best for others or the organization
  • May not always step back and see the bigger picture.

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Examine logical consequences
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • May need to learn how to value and manage conflict
  • May need to factor in their personal needs
  • May need to listen hard to what others really need or want

Back to Top



Description of an ENFJ

At Their Best
People with ENFJ preferences are highly attuned to others, using empathy to quickly understand emotional needs, motivations, and concerns. Their focus is on supporting others and encouraging their growth.

ENFJs are friendly persuaders who can often build consensus among people whose interests and motives are quite diverse. They often act as catalysts, including everyone and drawing out the best in others. They can be inspiring leaders as well as loyal followers.

Characteristics of ENFJs
ENFJs base decisions on personal values. They use their Feeling primarily externally, radiating warmth and energy. They look for and find the best in others and prize harmony and cooperation. They are warmed by approval, responding with energy and devotion, and are especially sensitive to criticism or tensions. ENFJs are likely to be:

  • Warm, compassionate, and supportive
  • Loyal and trustworthy

ENFJs see meanings and connections and can be very insightful about others. They are curious about new ideas and stimulated by possibilities for contributing to the good of humanity. ENFJs are likely to:

  • Be imaginative and creative
  • Like variety and new challenges

ENFJs naturally see the potential for growth in others and devote energy to help others achieve it. They are sensitive facilitators. ENFJs take responsibility for organizing interactions of colleagues, friends, or family so that all are involved, harmony prevails, and people have fun.

How Others May See Them
ENFJs are energetic, enthusiastic, and very aware of others. Their genuine interest can usually draw out and involve even the most reserved person. They listen to and support others but also have very definite values and opinions of their own, which they will express clearly. ENFJs are energized by people and are socially adept; however, they also have a strong need for authentic, intimate relationships. They bring great enthusiasm and intensity to creating and maintaining these.

ENFJs like their lives to be organized and will work to bring closure to ambiguous relationships or situations. However, if people’s needs conflict with schedules and rules, they will put people first. Others usually see ENFJs as

  • Sociable, personable, congenial, and gracious
  • Expressive, responsive, and persuasive

Potential Areas for Growth
Sometimes life circumstances have not supported ENFJs in the development and expression of their Intuitive and Feeling preferences.

  • If they have not developed their Intuition, ENFJs may not see possibilities, making decisions too quickly without taking in enough information or considering factors beyond their own personal values.
  • If they have not developed their Feeling, their decisions may be inconsistent and poorly formulated. They may then accept the judgments of others too readily.

If ENFJs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may:

  • Worry, feel guilty, and doubt themselves
  • Become insistent and controlling in their desire for harmony
  • Be overly sensitive to criticism, real or imagined

It is natural for ENFJs to give less attention to their non-preferred Thinking and Sensing parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they may:

  • Make decisions based solely on personal values when logic is needed also
  • Find it difficult to admit to problems or disagreements with people they care about
  • Overlook details required to realize their ideals

Under great stress, ENFJs may find themselves suddenly and uncharacteristically critical and fault-finding with others. They generally keep these negative opinions to themselves, but they find such thoughts troubling and upsetting.

Leisure Activities of an ENFJ
They appreciate literature and the arts and may tend to be less interested in physical activity and competitive sports than many of the other types. They often approach leisure with plans and structure and may feel responsible for others’ leisure. Play possibilities for them include: reading, visiting museums, collecting and telling stores or gourmet cooking.

Organizational Preferences of an ENFJ

Contribution to the Organization

  • Bring strong ideals of how organizations should treat people
  • Enjoy leading and facilitating teams
  • Encourage cooperation
  • Like to bring matters to fruitful conclusions

Leadership Style

  • Lead through personal enthusiasm
  • Take a participative stance in managing people and projects
  • Responsive to followers’ needs
  • Inspire change

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains individuals focused on changing things for the betterment of others
  • People oriented
  • Supportive and social
  • Encourages expression of self=f
  • Orderly

Potential Pitfalls

  • May idealize others and suffer from blind loyalty
  • May sweep problems under the rug when in conflict
  • May take criticism personally

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Examine logical consequences
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • May need to recognize the limitations of people and guard against unquestioning loyalty
  • May need to learn to manage conflict productively
  • May need to pay as much attention to the details of the task as to the people
  • May need to suspend self-criticism and listen carefully to the objective information contained in feedback

Back to Top



Description of an ENTJ

At Their Best
People with ENTJ preferences are natural leaders and organization builders. They conceptualize and theorize readily and translate possibilities into plans to achieve short-term and long-term objectives. They readily see illogical and inefficient procedures and feel a strong urge to correct them to organize people and situations to get them moving in the right direction.
ENTJs are strategic visionaries, adept at planning for the future needs of the people and organizations for which they are responsible.

Characteristics of ENTJs
ENTJs use their Thinking primarily externally and are thus natural critics. They set their own standards and are forceful in applying them to others, to organizations, and to themselves. They value intelligence and competence and abhor inefficiency or ignorance. They can be tough when the situation calls for toughness. ENTJs are likely to be:

  • Analytical, logical, and objectively critical
  • Decisive, clear, and assertive

ENTJs are intellectually curious, seek new ideas, and like complex problems. They use their Intuition primarily internally to conceive possibilities and create the insights they use in making decisions and plans. ENTJs are likely to be:

  • Conceptual and global thinkers
  • Innovative theorizers and planners

ENTJs are usually excellent solvers of organizational problems. They are keenly aware of the intricate connections within organizations and are action oriented and strategic they think ahead, anticipate problems, devise broad plans and systems, and marshal human and material resources to achieve goals. They are generally disinterested in routine maintenance activities, preferring new challenges.

How Others May See Them
ENTJs love, and are energized by, stimulating interactions with people. They often challenge people’s statements and behaviors, expecting that others will defend them and that, as a result, mutual learning will take place. ENTJs admire and seek out people who are knowledgeable and who stand up to them, say what they think, and argue persuasively.

ENTJs prefer that things be settled and clear, but their love of ideas can pull them into wide-ranging Intuitive exploration and discussions. Their verbal fluency, decisive- ness, self-confidence, and urge to organize others can over- power people at times. Others usually see ENTJs as:

  • Direct, challenging, and decisive
  • Objective, fair, and stimulating

Potential Areas for Growth
Sometimes life circumstances have not supported ENTJs in the development and expression of their Intuitive and Thinking preferences.

  • If they have not developed their Intuition, ENTJs may make decisions too quickly without considering alternatives or exploring possibilities. In this case, their decisiveness can become dictatorial.
  • If they have not developed their Thinking, they may not have a reliable way to evaluate their insights and make plans. Then their decision making will be inconsistent and changeable.

If ENTJs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may:

  • Become overly impersonal and critical
  • Be intrusive and directive giving orders without listening
  • Become abrasive and verbally aggressive

It is natural for ENTJs to give less attention to their non-preferred Feeling and Sensing parts. If they neglect these too much, however, they may:

  • Fail to notice or value another’s need for personal connection, appreciation, and praise
  • Fail to factor into their plans the needs of others for support and processing time
  • Overlook specifics and realistic factors that are necessary to carry their plans to completion

Under great stress, ENTJs can be overwhelmed by self-doubt, feel alone and unappreciated, and be unable to express their distress to others.

Leisure Activities of an ENTJ
ENTJs may be hearty, outgoing leaders in many activities, organizing a group of friends or their community. Play is usually possible for them only after they feel that their work is finished. They usually enjoy parties and competitive sports. Other options are: attending sporting events in which they can mix business with pleasure, such as golf with clients.

Organizational Preferences of an ENTJ

Contribution to the Organization

  • Develop well-though-out plans
  • Provide structure to the organization
  • Take charge quickly
  • Design strategies which work toward broad goals
  • Deal directly with problems caused by confusion and inefficiency

Leadership Style

  • Take an action-oriented energetic approach
  • Provide long-range vision to the organization
  • Manage directly and are tough when necessary
  • Enjoy complex problems

Preferred Work Environment

  • Contains results-oriented,independent people focused on solving complex problems
  • Goal oriented
  • Challenging
  • Structured
  • Includes tough-minded people

Potential Pitfalls

  • May overlook people’s needs in their focus on the task
  • May overlook practical considerations and constraints
  • May decide too quickly and appear impatient and domineering
  • May ignore and suppress their own feelings

Problem Solving Approach

  • Gather all the facts
  • Consider the impact on others
  • Examine logical consequences
  • Generate all the possibilities

Suggestions for Development

  • May need to factor in the human element and appreciate others’ contributions
  • May need to take time to reflect and consider all sides before deciding
  • May need to learn to identify and value feelings
  • May need to check the practical, personal and situational resources available before plunging ahead

Back to Top